Victorian Current Acts

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WRONGS ACT 1958


TABLE OF PROVISIONS

           Long Title

   1.      Short title and commencement  
   2.      Repeals and savings  
   2A.     Offences under this Act deemed to be indictable offences  

   PART I--CRIMINAL DEFAMATION AND THE REPORTING OF COURT PROCEEDINGS

   4.      No action maintainable against a person for faithfully reporting  
   9.      Publishing any libel with intent to extort money  
   10.     Publisher of false defamatory libel  
   11.     Trial for defamatory libel  
   13.     Costs  
   13AA.   Transitional  

   PART IA--PUBLISHERS

   13A.    Application of Part  
   13B.    Definitions  
   13C.    Identification of publisher  
   13D.    Transitional provisions  

   PART II--SEDUCTION

   14.     Proof of loss of service in actions of seduction unnecessary  

   PART IIA--OCCUPIERS' LIABILITY

   14A.    Definitions  
   14B.    Liability of occupiers  
   14C.    Liability of Crown  
   14D.    Application of Part V  
   14E.    Transitional  

   PART IIB--NEGLIGENCE--INTOXICATION AND ILLEGAL ACTIVITY

   14F.    Common law  
   14G.    Consideration of intoxication and illegal activity  
   14H.    Application  

   PART IIC--APOLOGIES

   14I.    Definitions  
   14J.    Apology not admission of liability  
   14K.    Reduction or waiver of fees  
   14L.    Application  

   PART III--WRONGFUL ACT OR NEGLECT CAUSING DEATH

   16.     Liability for death caused wrongfully  
   17.     Action for death caused wrongfully[2]  
   18.     Action for damages by persons interested  
   19.     Assessment of damages  
   19A.    Limitation on damages for loss of gratuitous care  
   19B.    Calculation of damages for gratuitous care  
   19C.    Application of sections 19A and 19B  
   20.     Application to court as to cause of action under this Part  
   21.     Particulars of demand  
   22.     Payment into court  
   23.     Mental or nervous shock  
   23AA.   Regulations  
   23AB.   Supreme Court—limitation of jurisdiction  
   23AC.   Transitional for gratuitous care  
   23AD.   Supreme Court—limitation of jurisdiction  
   23AE.   Transitional for assessment of damages  

   PART IV--CONTRIBUTION

   23A.    Definitions  
   23B.    Entitlement to contribution  
   24.     Recovery of contribution[3]  
   24AAA.  When employer not liable to indemnify third party in relation to an injury  
   24AA.   Proceedings against persons jointly liable for the same debt or damage  
   24AB.   Successive actions against persons liable (jointly or otherwise) for the same damage  
   24AC.   Application to the Crown  
   24AD.   Savings  

   PART IVAA--PROPORTIONATE LIABILITY

   24AE.   Definitions  
   24AF.   Application of Part  
   24AG.   What claims are excluded from this Part?  
   24AH.   Who is a concurrent wrongdoer?  
   24AI.   Proportionate liability for apportionable claims  
   24AJ.   Contribution not recoverable from defendant  
   24AK.   Subsequent actions  
   24AL.   Joining non-party concurrent wrongdoer in the action  
   24AM.   What if a defendant is fraudulent?  
   24AN.   Liability for contributory negligence not affected  
   24AO.   Effect of Part IV  
   24AP.   Part not to affect other liability  
   24AQ.   Supreme Court—limitation of jurisdiction  
   24AR.   Regulations  
   24AS.   Transitional  

   PART IVA--ABOLITION OF DOCTRINE OF COMMON EMPLOYMENT

   24A.    Abolition of doctrine of common employment  

   PART V--CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE

   25.     Definitions  
   26.     Liability for contributory negligence[6]  
   27.     Supreme Court—limitation of jurisdiction  
   28.     Non-application of this Part  
   28AA.   Transitional provision  

   PART VA--ASSESSMENT OF DAMAGES

   28A.    Damages for deprivation or impairment of earning capacity  

   PART VB--PERSONAL INJURY DAMAGES

   28B.    Definitions  
   28C.    Application of Part  
   28D.    General regulation of court awards  
   28E.    Part does not give rise to any cause of action  
   28F.    Damages for past or future economic loss—maximum for loss of earnings etc.  
   28G.    Fixing damages for non-economic loss  
   28H.    Indexation of certain amounts—consumer price index  
   28HAA.  Indexation—no reduction  
   28HAAB. Indexation—rounding  
   28HA.   Tariffs for damages for non-economic loss  
   28I.    Damages for future economic loss—discount rate  
   28IA.   Limitation on damages for gratuitous attendant care  
   28IB.   Calculation of damages  
   28IC.   Other laws not to be affected  
   28ID.   Court may award damages for loss of capacity to provide gratuitous care to dependants  
   28IE.   Calculation of damages for gratuitous care  
   28IF.   Sections 28ID(2) to (5) and 28IE do not apply to certain actions for damages  
   28J.    Supreme Court—limitation of jurisdiction  
   28K.    Regulations  
   28L.    Transitional  
   28LA.   Transitional for gratuitous attendant care services  
   28LAB.  Transitional for tariffs for damages for non-economic loss  
   28LAC.  Transitional for gratuitous care  
   28LACA. Transitionals—Wrongs Amendment Act 2015  
   28LACB. Power to resolve transitional difficulties in proceeding—Wrongs Amendment Act 2015  
   28LACC. Regulations dealing with transitional matters—Wrongs Amendment Act 2015  

   PART VBAA--AWARDS OF DAMAGES RELATED TO DEATH OR INJURY OF PRISONERS

   28LAD.  Definitions  
   28LAE.  Application of Part  
   28LAF.  Assessment of damages  
   28LAG.  Criminal record  
   28LAH.  Transitional  

   PART VBA--THRESHOLDS IN RELATION TORECOVERY OF DAMAGES FOR NON‑ECONOMIC LOSS

   28LB.   Definitions  
   28LC.   Application of Part  
   28LD.   This Part is substantive law  
   28LE.   Restriction on recovery of damages for non‑economic loss  
   28LF.   What is significant injury?  
   28LG.   Who can assess impairment?  
   28LH.   How is the degree of impairment to be assessed?  
   28LI.   Assessment of certain impairments  
   28LJ.   Regard not to be had to secondary psychiatric or psychological impairment  
   28LK.   Assessment of hearing impairment  
   28LL.   Assessment in relation to injuries arising out of the same incident  
   28LM.   Prescribed methods for assessment  
   28LN.   Certificate of assessment  
   28LNA.  Certificate where injury not stabilised  
   28LO.   Agreement to waive assessment of impairment  
   28LP.   What if the respondent asks for more information?  
   28LQ.   What if the respondent disputes responsibility?  
   28LR.   Can a respondent bind any other respondent?  
   28LT.   Copy of certificate of assessment to be served on respondent  
   28LU.   Multiple respondents  
   28LV.   Limitation period suspended  
   28LW.   Response to medical assessment  
   28LWA.  What if the respondent asks for more information?  
   28LWB.  What if the respondent disputes responsibility?  
   28LWC.  Can a respondent bind any other respondent?  
   28LWD.  Statement not admission of liability  
   28LWE.  Referral of medical question to Medical Panel  
   28LX.   Respondent to pay costs of referral  
   28LXA.  Administration  
   28LY.   Application  
   28LZ.   Procedure of Medical Panel  
   28LZA.  Respondent must provide information to Medical Panel  
   28LZB.  What if there is more than one referral in relation to an assessment?  
   28LZC.  What can a Medical Panel ask a claimant to do?  
   28LZD.  Attendance before Medical Panel to be private  
   28LZE.  Medical Panel can ask a registered health practitioner to attend  
   28LZF.  Protection of information given to Medical Panel  
   28LZG.  Determination of Panel  
   28LZGA. Further assessment  
   28LZH.  Effect of determination as to threshold level  
   28LZI.  Limitations on appeal in relation to assessments and determinations  
   28LZJ.  Treating medical practitioner not to be on Medical Panel  
   28LZK.  Validity of acts or decisions  
   28LZL.  Operation of Panel provisions of the Workplace Injury Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2013  
   28LZM.  Provision of assessment information to court  
   28LZMA. Power of court to stay proceeding until certificate of assessment and other information is served  
   28LZN.  Alternative procedure for special cases  
   28LZO.  Supreme Court—limitation of jurisdiction  
   28LZP.  Regulations  
   28LZQ.  Transitional  
   28LZR.  Transitional—Wrongs Amendment (Asbestos Related Claims) Act 2015  
   28LZS.  Transitionals—Wrongs Amendment Act 2015  
   28LZT.  Power to resolve transitional difficulties in proceeding—Wrongs Amendment Act 2015  
   28LZU.  Regulations dealing with transitional matters—Wrongs Amendment Act 2015  

   PART VC--STRUCTURED SETTLEMENTS

   28M.    Definitions  
   28N.    Court may make order for structured settlement  

   PART VI--DAMAGE BY AIRCRAFT

   29.     Definitions  
   30.     Limitation of liability for trespass or nuisance by flying over property  
   31.     Liability for damage by aircraft or articles falling therefrom  

   PART VIA--GOOD SAMARITAN PROTECTION

   31A.    Definition  
   31B.    Protection of good samaritans  
   31C.    Application of section 31B  
   31D.    Supreme Court—limitation of jurisdiction  

   PART VIB--FOOD DONOR PROTECTION

   31E.    Interpretation  
   31F.    Protection of food donors  
   31G.    Application of section 31F  
   31H.    Supreme Court—limitation of jurisdiction  

   PART VII--ABOLITION OF LIABILITY IN TORT FOR MAINTENANCE OR CHAMPERTY

   32.     Abolition of liability in maintenance or champerty  

   PART VIII--ANIMALS STRAYING ON TO A HIGHWAY

   33.     Liability for negligence for animals on highway  

   PART IX--VOLUNTEER PROTECTION

   34.     Definitions  
   35.     Meaning of volunteer  
   36.     Meaning of community work  
   37.     Protection of volunteers from liability  
   38.     Exceptions to section 37(1)  
   39.     Provisions concerning the liability of community organisations  
   40.     Certain indemnities etc. have no effect  
   41.     Application of section 37  
   42.     Regulations  

   PART X--NEGLIGENCE

   43.     Definitions  
   44.     Application of Part  
   45.     Exclusions from Part  
   46.     Application to contract  
   47.     Effect of this Part on the common law  
   48.     General principles  
   49.     Other principles  
   50.     Duty to warn of risk—reasonable care  
   51.     General principles  
   52.     Burden of proof  
   53.     Meaning of obvious risk  
   54.     Voluntary assumption of risk  
   55.     No liability for materialisation of inherent risk  
   56.     Plaintiff to prove unawareness of risk  
   57.     Definition  
   58.     Standard of care to be expected of persons holding out as possessing a particular skill  
   59.     Standard of care for professionals  
   60.     Duty to warn of risk  
   61.     Liability based on non-delegable duty  
   62.     Standard of care for contributory negligence  
   63.     Contributory negligence can defeat claim  
   64.     Regulations  
   65.     Supreme Court—limitation of jurisdiction  
   66.     Transitional  

   PART XI--MENTAL HARM

   67.     Definitions  
   68.     Application of Part  
   69.     Exclusions from Part  
   70.     Application to contract  
   71.     Effect of this Part on the common law  
   72.     Mental harm—duty of care  
   73.     Limitation on recovery of damages for pure mental harm arising from shock  
   74.     Limitation on recovery of damages for consequential mental harm  
   75.     Liability for economic loss for mental harm  
   76.     Regulations  
   77.     Supreme Court—limitation of jurisdiction  
   78.     Transitional  

   PART XII--LIABILITY OF PUBLIC AUTHORITIES

   79.     Definitions  
   80.     Application of Part  
   81.     Exclusions from Part  
   82.     Effect of this Part on the common law  
   83.     Principles concerning resources, responsibilities etc. of public authorities  
   84.     Wrongful exercise of or failure to exercise function  
   85.     Exercise of function or decision to exercise does not create duty  
   86.     Supreme Court—limitation of jurisdiction  
   87.     Transitional  

   PART XIII--ORGANISATIONAL LIABILITY FOR CHILD ABUSE

   88.     Definitions  
   89.     Application of Part  
   90.     When is an individual associated with a relevant organisation?  
   91.     Liability of organisations  
   92.     Entity may nominate body to be sued  
   93.     Transitional  
           SCHEDULE
           ENDNOTES


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